Gamal Eid provided exceptional assistance in researching the report, particularly the chapter on Egypt, and provided the title. This report is dedicated to the writers and activists who spoke to Human Rights Watch in the course of the research that went in to it, often taking great risks to do so. The speed with which the Internet has spread throughout the Middle East and North Africa testifies to the region's appetite for alternative means of getting and transmitting information. In countries where the press is rigidly controlled, the Internet has opened a window for greater freedom of expression and communication. Anyone with access to a computer, an Internet connection, and "blogging" tools can now publish to a potential audience of millions, free of charge, within minutes.
False Freedom: Online Censorship in the Middle East and North Africa
Refworld | False Freedom: Online Censorship in the Middle East and North Africa
Artemisia herba-alba is an important component of Mediterranean dry steppe floras, being widely distributed in arid areas of the Iberian Peninsula and North-West Africa. In this study, we use genetic, cytogenetic and niche modelling tools to investigate the natural history of the species, focusing particularly on the role played by polyploidization to explain current diversity patterns throughout the main distribution range of the plant. Our sequencing data indicate a complex phylogeographical structure showing similar haplotype diversity patterns on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar and no clear signals of genetic refugia. According to our cytogeographical results, we inferred multiple polyploidization events, which probably took place on the Iberian Peninsula and in North Africa independently. Environmental niche modelling suggested stable potential distributions of A.
Angelakis; Historic hydraulic works: paradigms of traditional good water governance, integrity and sustainability. Water Supply 1 November ; 20 7 : — Historic hydraulic structures are man-made ancestral water systems that helped sedentism and the emergence of cities where the resource is rare or partly available. The scope of the study is to present seven examples of historic hydraulic structures from different geographic contexts, as diverse as South America, Europe, the Middle East and the Far East, as paradigms of indigenous knowledge in water governance.
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